Convert Laptop Screen to Vga

Convert Laptop Screen to Vga .Here's a quick acknowledgment for those who wants to use a laptop LCD for affectation for their CarPC. I achievement this will be helpful. And there's no added alibi for arrant "oh oh oh its not in the faq section."

A basal LCD adviser you shop for over the adverse is already prepackaged with aggregate you charge to angle up to a accepted video ascribe jacks such as VGA, RCA, S-Video.
Description: This is the medium sized LED Matrix with a backpack that has been designed to take SPI serial input and display any graphics you pass it. All the refreshing and communication control is taken care of by the backpack. It's even reprogrammable! Off, Red, Green, and Yellow colors are available.Serial Led Matrix Interface 
Timed Potentiometers
Long time rotary move sensor with water-proof 11 wh size carbon-ceramic trimmer ceramic base preset potentiometer 12 wi size metal-glaze trimmer ceramic base preset potentiometer. Potentiometers,wholesale china buy potentiometer 50k, business industrial items on ebay find great deals on musical buy it now: $17 90: time left: 10d 11h 43m. Potentiometer 50k items - get great deals on
how does a DPST Relay work this schema may will help you
DPST= Double pole single throw
So when this relay is turned on or off, it switches contacts on 2 circuits.

---------0 ----------

---------0 ----------
It shows how the program compilation is performed as well as various responses lcd custom character mikroc pro for pic includes lcd custom character the output is the mikroc pro. Video ara mikroc 18f452 lcd example - kendin co programa abaixo foi elaborado no compilador mikroc (www.mikroe.com) e tem como objetivo escrever duas mensagens no display lcd added on 13th marth 2010 06:55:11 pm program. Experiments with pic16f628a: september 2009 how to use rom for storing data in mikroc avoid error not you have to move the strings to rom (flash program) memory lcd_out(1,1,text) // now output is shibuvarkala1234.
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Semiconductor And Integrated Components
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Electronic Circuit Simulation Diagram

Electronic Circuit Simulation Diagram
This is a fun little activity that was way added assignment than it's apparently account but a few of us accept begin it amusing.

If you don't appetite to apprehend all this stuff, bang this articulation Bang the switches and see what happens. Then appear aback here.
A Collection of Electronic Projects and Circuits

If you’ve already formed through a few projects from Electronics Projects For Dummies and bent the electronics bug you ability appetite to try a few projects from added sources. To advice you out here’s a account of some absorbing projects that I’ve begin about the Web. These projects attending absorbing and are able-bodied accurate but we haven’t had a adventitious to body them all, so after-effects may vary! Some of these projects use aerial voltages and currents we accomplish no assurance as to their safety, it is your own albatross to alone accouterment projects that you accept the ability and abilities to assignment on safely.

· Plant Moisture Meter. This ambit takes the assumption out of watering plants by lighting up an LED

Controlled Mass Production of Nanowires

Controlled Mass Production of Nanowires
Reliable manufacturing of nanowires for large-scale, integrated devices (lab-on-a-chip, for example) requires that these structures can be grown at desired locations over a large area. Kris Bertness and colleagues at the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) have grown Gallium Nitride nanowires on silicon substrates at controlled locations with essentially perfect selectivity.
Blue-green diode lasers New Evolution
High power edge emitting diode lasers are the most efficient coherent light sources available. They feature small physical size combined with high reliability. Semiconductor lasers can be manufactured from the ultraviolet to the mid infrared. However, especially in the visible spectrum from the aquamarine (480 nm) to the red (630 nm) including green, yellow and orange no emission from diode lasers is available – a wavelength range needed by a vast number of applications like medical treatment and diagnostics, spectroscopy, data storage, and display technology. One way to obtain coherent light at wavelengths where direct laser emission is unavailable is frequency conversion, like second harmonic generation (SHG).

Skema Penyearah Tiga-fasa

To minimize the low frequency ripple without using a large LC filters, active filters such as the installation can be seen in Figure 3 (a) has been proposed in the literature [80-10]. Figure three (b) shows an equivalent circuit of the dc side of Figure 3 (a). Vd states the average value (dc component) and declare the filter capacitor voltage ripple. If the active filter is controlled so as to produce the voltage ripple voltage ripple burden no longer contain. In these systems, a passive LC filter is used to reduce ripple and high frequency active filter to reduce low frequency ripple. Therefore, the required size of passive filter is not too large. This active filter can be implemented with a series of linear mode power converters and switching. As mentioned previously, the relationship between the series active filter with a load capacity of the current causes the active filter must be at least equal to the maximum current load, although the low-voltage itself, which is equal to the voltage ripple is compensated. Since a large current capacity required, the application of this method for very large currents will complex and inefficient.
The circuit Skema Elektro Lampu Emergency scheme is often called the light of this cas I've tried and this circuit can operate for eight hours depending on the batteries that we use but more effective if we use the dry batteries but the price is quite expensive and use the relay as an automatic switch so we do not have to bother because the circuit will automatically go on when the lights went out and and where electric lights, the circuit will automatically initiate the charge and the circuit is very suitable for the tasks of school if it is less obvious


what we need is • TRAFO = 5A CT /1
• TRANSISTOR =MJ2955/1
=BC 548 A/1
=BD 140/1
=L7812 CV/1
• RESISTOR =12 KΩ/1
= 10 KΩ/1
=82 KΩ/1
=1M Ω/1
=8K2 Ω/2
=3K9 Ω/1
=100 Ω/1
=4K7 Ω/1
• DIODA =MDA 2500/2
=IN4002/1
• DIODA ZENER =6V8/1
=5V6/1
For the S line, KWM-2 and KWS-1. Plug and play for the S line and easy install for the other radios.

Also available for Kenwood TS-520S/SE, Drake C line and several Hammarlund receivers.

Displays frequency with 10Hz resolution and displays operating mode (LSB, USB, AM and CW if you have the CW crystal installed in your radio).

Fully automatic. It measures the crystal osc. the PTO and the BFO and computes the carrier frequency.

Since it measures all the oscillators it takes into account any errors in the crystals in your radio.

Update rate of 5 times per second tracks real time while you tune.

Digital filtering to eliminate bouncing digits due to digital round off.

ie: does NOT bounce back and forth between 999 and 1000.
Kenwood TS-520S/SE schema

In DTL (Diode transistor logic), all the logic is implemented using diodes and transistors. A basic circuit in the DTL logic family is as shown in the figure below. Each input is associated with one diode. The diodes and the 4.7K resistor form an AND gate. If input X, Y or Z is low, the corresponding diode conducts current, through the 4.7K resistor. Thus there is no current through the diodes connected in series to transistor base . Hence the transistor does not conduct, thus remains in cut-off, and output out is High.




If all the inputs X, Y, Z are driven high, the diodes in series conduct, driving the transistor into saturation. Thus output out is Low.
what is Resistor Transistor Logic Diagram
In RTL (resistor transistor logic), all the logic are implemented using resistors and transistors. One basic thing about the transistor (NPN), is that HIGH at input causes output to be LOW (i.e. like a inverter). Below is the example of a few RTL logic circuits.
Resistor Transistor Logic Diagram



A basic circuit of an RTL NOR gate consists of two transistors Q1 and Q2, connected as shown in the figure above. When either input X or Y is driven HIGH, the corresponding transistor goes to saturation and output Z is pulled to LOW.
In DL (diode logic), all the logic is implemented using diodes and resistors. One basic thing about the diode, is that diode needs to be forward biased to conduct. Below is the example of a few DL logic circuits.Diode Logic Circuit
When no input is connected or driven, output Z is low, due to resistor R1. When high is applied to either X or Y, or both X and Y are driven high, the corresponding diode get forward biased and thus conducts. When any diode conducts, output Z goes high.



Points to PonderDiode Logic suffers from voltage degradation from one stage to the next.
Diode Logic only permits OR and AND functions.
Diode Logic is used extensively but not in integrated circuits.

2 Watt Amplifier schema

2 Watt Amplifier schema.A 2 Watt audio amplifier made from discrete components.



Notes:
This was one of the earliest circuits that I ever designed and built, in Spring 1982. At that time I had only an analogue meter and a calculator to work with. Although not perfect, this amplifier does have a wide frequency response, low harmonic distortion about 3%, and is capable of driving an 8 ohm speaker to output levels of around 5 watts with slightly higher distortion. Any power supply in the range 12 to 18 Volts DC may be used.

Circuit Description
The amplifier operates in Class AB mode; the single 470R preset resistor, PR1 controls the quiescent current flowing through the BD139/140 complimentary output transistors. Adjustment here, is a trade-off between low distortion and low quiescent current. Typically, under quiescent conditions, current is about 15 mA rising to 150 mA with a 50 mV input signal. The frequency response is shown below and is flat from 20Hz to 100kHz:

Bode Blot:



The circuit is DC biased so that the emitters of the BD139 and BD140 are at approximately half supply voltage, to allow for a maximum output voltage swing. R9 and R10 provide a degree of temperature stabilization which works as follows. If the output transistors are warm, the emitter currents will increase. This causes a greater voltage drop across R9 and R10 reducing the available bias current. All four transistors are direct coupled which ensures:-
(i) A good low frequency response
(ii) Temperature and bias change stability.

DC Voltages of Prototype
The following voltage checks were made on my prototype. All voltage are made with respect to (wrt) 0 Volt and shown in the table below.
DC Voltages Measured wrt 0V
Q1 Emitter 9.12V
Q1 Base 9.77V
Q1 Collector 14.22V
Q2 Base 14.22V
Q3 Base 7.65V
Q4 Base 5.98V
Junction R9/10 6.82V
Capacitor C3 14.95V The BC109C and 2N3906 operate in common emitter. This alone will provide a very high open loop gain. The output BD139/140 pair operate in emitter follower, allowing the amplifier to drive low impedance speakers. The signal to noise ration is shown below:

Signal to Noise Ratio:



This amplifier has a S/n ratio of 115dB at 1kHz. Overall gain is provided by the ratio of the 22k and 1k resistor. A heat sink on the BD139/140 pair is recommended but not essential, though the transistors will run "hot" to the touch.

Fourier Analysis
A quick measure of the distortion of this amplifier was performed. Operating on a 15V DC power supply with an input sinusoidal waveform of 100mV peak to peak at 1KHz produced the following results in Tina1.

Fourier Coefficients:



The number of samples was set to 4096 and Fourier coefficients up to the 16th harmonic were calculated. The sum of the all harmonics up to 16KHz amounted to just under 2.9% total harmonic distortion, the results are plotted below.

Harmonic Distortion:



The second and third harmonic are the biggest contribution to overall distortion. Choosing a different amplifier design, a different viasing scheme or more evenly match components can reduce distortion accordingly. At the time this amplifier was made, I only had an analogue multimeter, so all things considered, it was not too bad an effort.

Picture of My Prototype
Finally an image of the original which has stood the test of time. The BD139,140 power transistors can be seen on the left hand side, the preset near top centre, the BC109C centre right and 2N3906 is buried under a miniature screened audio cable, centre bottom.

via :http://www.zen22142.zen.co.uk/Circuits/Audio/2wamp.html
This is a complete alarm system with 5 independent zones suitable for a small office or home environment. It uses just 3 CMOS IC's and features a timed entry / exit zone, 4 immediate zones and a panic button. There are indicators for each zone a "system armed" indicator. The schematic is as follows:


Please Note: This diagram is drawn with Relay and Switch Contacts labeled as in my Practical Section

Wheres the Parts List ? On the diagram click here for more info.



Circuit Notes:
Each zone uses a normally closed contact. These can be micro switches or standard alarm contacts (usually reed switches). Suitable switches can be bought from alarm shops and concealed in door frames, or window ledges.

Zone 1 is a timed zone which must be used as the entry and exit point of the building. Zones 2 - 5 are immediate zones, which will trigger the alarm with no delay. Some RF immunity is provided for long wiring runs by the input capacitors, C1-C5. C7 and R14 also form a transient suppresser. The key switch acts as the Set/Unset and Reset switch. For good security this should be the metal type with a key.

Operation:
At switch on, C6 will charge via R11, this acts as the exit delay and is set to around 30 seconds. This can be altered by varying either C6 or R11. Once the timing period has elapsed, LED6 will light, meaning the system is armed. LED6 may be mounted externally (at the bell box for example) and provides visual indication that the system has set. Once set any contact that opens will trigger the alarm, including Zone 1. To prevent triggering the alarm on entry to the building, the concealed re-entry switch must be operated. This will discharge C6 and start the entry timer. The re-entry switch could be a concealed reed switch, located anywhere in a door frame, but invisible to the eye. The panic switch, when pressed, will trigger the alarm when set. Relay contacts RLA1 provide the latch, RLA2 operate the siren or buzzer.

source http://www.zen22142.zen.co.uk/Circuits/Alarm/5zalm.html
This circuit uses a 555 timer as the bases of the blow switch. You can apprentice added about 555 timers in the Learning area on my site. When the bowl is affected the 555 timer is triggered and the achievement on pin 3 goes aerial axis on the LED and the buzzer for a assertive aeon of time. The time that the LED and the buzzer is on is based on the ethics of the capacitor and resistor affiliated to pin 6 & 7. The 10M resistor on pin 2 causes the
the ambit to be actual acute to the touch.
this is schema 5 Zone Alarm Circuit,Each area uses a commonly bankrupt contact. These can be micro switches or accepted anxiety contacts (usually reed switches). Area 1 is a timed area which allegation be acclimated as the access and avenue point of the building. Zones 2 - 5 are actual zones, which will activate the anxiety with no delay. Some RF amnesty is provided for continued base runs by the ascribe capacitors, C1-C5. C7 and R14 additionally anatomy a brief suppresser.
The key about-face acts as the Set/Unset and Reset switch. For acceptable aegis this should be the metal blazon with a key. At about-face on, C6 will allegation via R11, this acts as the avenue adjournment and is set to about 30 seconds. This can be adapted by capricious either C6 or R11.

build Active Sub-Woofer and Controller



Introduction

Sub woofers are actual popular, with home theatre actuality one of the active forces. However, a acceptable sub adds appreciably to accustomed hi-fi affairs material, and abnormally so if it is anticipated and has acceptable acknowledgment characteristics.
The majority of sub woofers use a ample apostle disciplinarian in a ample box, with affability vents and all the difficulties (and vagaries) that accepted operation entails. By conventional, I beggarly that the apostle and chiffonier are operated as a beating system, application the Thiele-Small ambit to access a box which will (if aggregate works as it should) accommodate accomplished performance.
The assumption of Extended Low FrequencyTM(or ELFTM) [1] is decidedly uncommon, with one architect that I accept begin application it in their subs [2]. I doubtable there is one other, but I am not assertive that the aforementioned adjustment is acclimated - although the assumption is the same. Since ELF is trademarked, I will not be application the appellation in this project, but will accredit to my adaptation as Electronically Assisted Subwoofer (EAS). I briefly anticipation about Electronic Subwoofer Assumption (ESP) but absitively that would be asinine :-)

The basal attempt were apparent by Edward Long and Ronald Wickersham (although there is a achievability that others accept acclimated agnate attempt beforehand, there is little accessible literature), and they both point out that there are some above problems in the reproduction of low bass, highlighting the actuality that the bass is the foundation aloft which the complete angel is created, and that the appearance acknowledgment of ported enclosures can account "smearing" of the complete in the time domain. I don't apperceive about "smearing", but I do apperceive that my ancestor provides bass that is added and tighter than annihilation I accept heard before. Ported enclosures absolutely account problems with the sound, as the reproduction apparatus relies on two beating systems, and it takes time for the complete to body up and decay.

Siegfried Linkwitz [3] developed a ambit that equalises the basal end of the system, but does not affect the college frequencies. This is apparent and declared absolutely in Activity 71, and charge be acclimated with a crossover. Although it offers several advantages over the EAS arrangement declared here, it is additionally abundant added codicillary on your abundant ability of the loudspeaker disciplinarian parameters
Fake electronic devices proliferate in China
BEIJING -- Apple's iPhone 4G is not clearly for auction yet in China and may not be for several months. Neither is the accepted iPad touch-screen tablet.

But never mind. Both accessories are readily accessible at a deluge of Chinese electronics malls in Beijing, Shanghai and all the above cities, in what constitutes China's advantageous telecommunications "gray market" that rivals -- and in some cases, surpasses -- the absolute thing.

The phones are banned from the United States and additionally from Hong Kong, area both accessories are clearly on sale. The banned iPhone 4G sells in China for $800 to $1,700, depending on the accumulator size. An iPad with 64 gigabytes goes for about $1,000.

If those prices are too high, Chinese consumers charge not affront -- there are affluence of fakes on the market, about duplicate from the absolute thing, from the blow awning to the apps to the iconic argent logo on the back. They are accepted actuality as "Shanzhaiji," which about translates as "Mountain Bandit Phones."

China has continued aloft the ire of U.S. barter admiral for the country's copycat ability and generally condescending attitude against bookish acreage rights. It is accepted as the world's ambassador of affected Rolexes, DVDs, affluence handbags, artist accouterment and aloof about aggregate else.

But the all-around access of acute phones and claimed accessories has taken the canard to a added adult level, with the "Shanzhaiji" aggressive with accepted manufacturers and claiming an accretion allotment of the telecommunications market. BDA China, a Beijing-based business advising firm, said adulterous phones fabricated up 38 percent of the handset sales in China in 2009.

Some adulterous corpuscle phones action anytime added avant-garde appearance that can outdistance alike the originals.

"It alike has some functions the absolute one doesn't," boasted one buzz bell-ringer assuming off a Taiwanese-made affected iPhone 4G at Beijing's Fang Shi Communications and Technology Plaza, a hot, crowed, sprawling building alms a boundless arrangement of affected cellphones.

The affected iPhone's appropriate appearance accommodate a disposable array and a abode for two SIM cards, acceptation the user can accept two buzz numbers arena for the aforementioned phone.

"You about can't acquaint the aberration amid this and the absolute thing," said a vendor, nicknamed "Huzi," answer that he has awash added than 4,000 aback the fakes came on the bazaar a few months ago. It says "iPhone" on the back, with the Apple logo. It alike uses absolute iPhone accessories, like the charger and the earphones. The alone aberration is the amount -- about $100, with a little bargaining.

Huzi, the adolescent bell-ringer with orange-tinted annoying hair, said he has never had a chump appear aback and complain. His boutique does action a abounding guarantee.

There are affluence of added fakes as well, some with about no apparent aberration from the absolute artefact except, on afterpiece inspection, the name.

The vendors assume assertive about the achievability that they are breaking the law. "The badge won't able bottomward us -- it's not accoutrements or drugs, why bother?" Huzi said. He added: "The corpuscle phones aren't illegal. If it's illegal, why is such a big bazaar still accessible here?"

Many of the affected corpuscle phones are exported to the Middle East and Africa, a advantageous bazaar for bargain fakes. Some vendors at two Beijing electronics malls said African barter generally buy phones in bulk, to booty aback to their home countries -- possibly to advertise as the absolute thing.

Flora Wu, arch analyst with BDA in Beijing, said in an e-mail that accepted iPhone hand-set sales in China in the aboriginal bisected of this year were 800,000, compared with 2.5 actor banned hand-sets sold.

Murray King, the managing administrator for Greater China for APCO Worldwide, said abounding buyers of cloned articles were generally foreigners, who appear to China to sop up the affected Rolexes and DVDs.


Connect the architect to your preamp, and boring beforehand the akin ascendancy until the complete akin is at about the akin of accustomed accent (about 65dB). Carefully accept for any "tonality" in the sound, such as a low hum, or a point area the arresting seems to abandon (sometimes referred to as a "suckout"), or annihilation which does not complete like authentic noise. This will apparently booty a little convenance - if you accept a clear equaliser handy, this is a abundant way to acquaint peaks and dips to apprehend what they complete like.

Try alert through a acceptable set of headphones, and analyze the aftereffect with the speakers and allowance acoustics, you ability be afraid at the result. I already apprehend a adventure area an architect was aggravating to acquisition out area the hum in his babble architect was advancing from. It angry out that the babble architect had no hum at all, but he was audition the bass resonance from a abominably advised loudspeaker - you can get hasty after-effects from blush babble testing!

Remember that if you use the another clarify and use beyond than accustomed caps to get acknowledgment bottomward to 1Hz, this will account actual ample cone excursions with no aural output. This is abnormally accurate of vented apostle enclosures, so acute affliction is bare to ensure that you don't account apostle damage.
For audio testing, a blush babble antecedent is an invaluable tool. It is about a collapsed abundance acknowledgment babble source, and will bound appearance any anomolies in apostle systems, allowance acoustics and crossover networks.

Audio Testing with Pink Noise Generator
White babble (the complete you apprehend back a TV is acquainted to a non-existent station) has a abundance appropriate which raises the ability akin by 3dB with anniversary accretion octave, and is not adequate for acknowledgment testing (and will apparently draft your tweeters as well). By accumulation a 3dB / octave clarify and a white babble source, we can get a actual adequate approximation to "perfect" blush noise, area the ability in the octave (for example) 40 to 80Hz is absolutely the aforementioned as in the octave 10kHz to 20kHz. There's alone one baby botheration - the best basal clarify rolls off at 6dB/ octave, so to actualize a 3dB/ octave clarify we accept to use assorted clarify sections. The cardinal of sections determines how collapsed the clarify will be, and added is better.

Figure 1 shows the ambit diagram for a basal filter, which can use a array of bifold opamps. I accept apparent the RC4558, but you can use the LM1458 bifold op-amp for economy. There is no point application a low-noise accessory in article which is accurately advised to accomplish noise, so this op-amp is accomplished for the purpose. While this is a nice simple ambit and will be adequate for best applications, it has a bound abundance range, and it can be bigger - artlessly at the amount of complexity. The clarify doesn't accept abundant "break points" to awning the audio bandage decidedly accurately, although it is bigger than you ability imagine.
this is When you need to test an audio circuit with broadband noise, this circuit works great. It uses just three inexpensive C-MOS ICs that generate a series of output pulses whose widths vary randomly. I included a level control pot.see the picture below

Protection Circuit troubleshooting

* NEW Aegis Ambit troubleshooting with 4 new alternate demos

* NEW Alternate audio and ability accumulation troubleshooting flowcharts

It contains...Protection Circuit troubleshooting
* NEW Troubleshooting basics affiliate to advice those who are new to electronics including 5 new alternate demos (January 2006)

* NEW Aegis ambit troubleshooting with 4 new alternate demos

* NEW Alternate audio and ability accumulation troubleshooting flowcharts

* Audio troubleshooting basics with an angel or two of audio waveforms

* Basal ambit diagrams for altered types of achievement transistor configurations

* Class D basics with advice about the HIP4080 disciplinarian IC including:

o Pin out descriptions

o Typical ability accumulation configurations

o Typical op-amp accumulation voltages for altered types of ability supplies

o Drive achievement diagrams

* Suggestions for ambience up a lath for repairs

* Suggestions ambidextrous with barter and abbreviation headaches aback ambidextrous with them

* Images that appearance the area of assorted genitalia (output transistors, ability accumulation FETs, rectifiers, thermistors...) on assorted amplifiers.

* Tech tips and basal troubleshooting suggestions (more than 80 altered tips to advice you save time, accomplishment and money)

* Schematic symbols acclimated in amplifier schematic diagrams including:

o Resistors

o Potentiometers

o Diodes

o Bipolar Junction Transistors

o N-Channel Field Effect Transistors

o P-Channel Field Effect Transistors

o Junction Field Effect Transistors

* Suggestions for specific accoutrement (desoldering pumps, irons, screwdrivers...)

* Ability accumulation design/operation basics with absolute oscilloscope waveform images

* A actual abundant account of the best accepted ability accumulation disciplinarian IC (TL594) including alternate Flash demos showing:

o Comparators

o Error amp ascribe and asleep time control

o PWM comparator operation with 3 inputs (all interactive)

o PWM comparator operation with 4 inputs (all interactive)

o Lockout voltage and adjustment

* Tips on accepting an amplifier's ability accumulation to appear on aback the amplifier always goes into aegis (this is actual helpful)

* Basal ability accumulation schematics with 3 altered types of ability accumulation MOSFET disciplinarian circuits

* Advice about altered comparators acclimated in ability accumulation aegis circuits

* Advice about thermal aegis and the types of accessories acclimated in those circuits

* Links to some of the best accepted backup genitalia datasheets (including some adamantine to acquisition datasheets)

* Accepted genitalia amalgamation outlines with pin configurations including:

o TO-218 Transistors

o TO-220 Transistors

o TO-92 Transistors (both Japanese and American types)

o 14 Pin cloister op-amp

o 8 Pin bifold op-amp

o 9 Pin bifold op-amp with ability feed-through ambit

* Ambit lath blueprint advice including:

o Foil blueprint and basic orientation

o Silk awning definitions

* Internal block diagrams of the 2 best accepted op-amp configurations

* Accepted op-amp circuits acclimated as buffers, inverting amplifiers and non-inverting amplifiers

* Advice on abrogating acknowledgment circuits application detached cogwheel pairs or op-amps

* Advice about 4 altered types of voltage regulators begin in amplifiers including:

o Simple blow regulators

o Current addition blow regulators

o Fixed regulators

o Resistor-programmable regulators

* Basal description of 2 types of muting circuits

o Relay muting

o JFET muting

* Advice about the bearing of higher_than_rail drive voltage for accepted beneficiary amplifiers

* Notes on the accessories bare for repairs

o Ability food (pictures of both beeline and switching ability supplies)

o Dummy loads

o Voltmeters - The afterward DMMs are apparent on the tutorial.

+ Fluke 77

+ Fluke 79

+ Fluke 27

+ Fluke 11

+ Fluke 112

o Oscilloscopes:

In the tutorial, I awning a cogent cardinal of oscilloscope appearance and accord absolutely a few suggestions for affairs a acclimated scope. As of now, around every affection that you'll charge is apparent and explained. I alike appearance some avant-garde appearance that are not all-important but are available. Some of the scopes were purchased on eBay and for those scopes, I acquaint you about what they amount and/or what you can apprehend to pay.

* I've additionally included aerial resolution images of the internals of added than 100 amplifiers (3000+ images). For addition who isn't accustomed with the assorted amplifiers on the market, the photos will appearance them what they ability encounter. Abounding times I use them as a reference. If an amp has missing apparatus or apparatus that are austere above recognition, I can accredit aback to the photos to actuate what I charge to adjustment the amp. Alike if the exact amplifier that you charge isn't available, there may able-bodied be one that's agnate abundant to be of help. There are abounding amplifiers that use actual agnate circuits. Abounding times, the alone aberration is the way it's laid out on the board. The photos about accommodate one all-embracing angel of the amplifier. Then anniversary area (power accumulation drive, audio drive, preamp...) is photographed to acquiesce you to see the accomplished details. In general, the resolution is aerial abundant so that the ethics of tiny apparent arise apparatus (often alone 0.05" wide) can calmly be read.

The amount is $49.95 additional aircraft via USPS Priority mail ($8) aural the US or via Priority Mail International ($15) for those buyers alfresco of the US.. Since the boilerplate activity for adjustment is ~$40-$70, it will booty actual little time to compensate the amount of this tutorial
* There accept been abounding updates back September. Here are a few of the added important ones.

* I've added a folio to advice troubleshooting the chic D amps agnate to the Massive 1500 and 3000 that are so popular. The advice includes waveforms and instructions to analysis the ambit with and after the achievement transistors in the circuit. This can be actual accessible if you accept an amplifier that's cartoon boundless current.Amplifier repair troublesooter
* A new folio has been added that shows how to accomplish an bargain heater/pre-heater that can accomplish removing SMD electrolytic capacitors abundant easier and abate the adventitious of damaging the adhesive pads. This is abnormally accessible back alive on boards with a aerial body of components. This folio additionally introduces you to application adhesive paste.

* Added advice has been added for the chic D amps with the numbers machined off or encapsulated in adhesive (including advice on how to cautiously abolish the adhesive to acquiesce backup of the ICs beneath it).

* Added advice has been added to appearance you how to adjustment abominably damaged boards. It includes advice on the best blazon of fillers to adjustment holes (when necessary).

* A area has been added for rewinding transformers. Abounding times, the ability agent will abbreviate and the windings will be burned. Sometimes it's as simple as removing the old wire and re-winding it. Sometimes the amount is damaged and isn't usable. I've provided sources for both the allurement wire and the cores and suggestions for the blazon of amount actual you'll charge to select.

* Added advice on aegis ambit troubleshooting has been added. This seems to be one of the best difficult types of problems for new techs.

* Abounding times, an amp will accept baptize accident that will account accident that's about absurd to see. To accomplish it worse, the architect of the amps that best frequently accept this botheration will accommodate actually no tech support. A area has been added to acquaint you what to attending for. The signs of accident are actual difficult to see until you apperceive absolutely what to attending for.

* Abounding amps accept terminal blocks that can't be readily soldered. I activate a band-aid and appearance how to accomplish the blocks solderable. This is acceptable a bigger botheration as these types of terminal blocks age and the adhesive access activate to fail.

* Added than 800 files accept been adapted back September. Abounding of the cartoon files were replaced with bigger ones or bankrupt up. Virtually all of the argument based pages in the adjustment area accept had some advice added or accept had sections re-written to accomplish them better.

September, 2008 -- Updated!

* I've added added genitalia suppliers and added assets to acquisition parts. This helps save time back attractive for backup parts.

* I've added to the account of Tech Tips including a area on rewinding bootless ability transformers. It includes sources for the wire and cores. If you accept to rewind or alter a agent in an amplifier this will accomplish the assignment abundant easier.

* I've broadcast the folio committed to terminal blocks. Best bodies don't anticipate about the terminal blocks back acclimation an amplifier. Abounding times, the blocks are damaged so abominably that they're not usable. Best are not accessible from the manufacturer. If you adjustment an amp with damaged terminal blocks (something that's not consistently obvious) and you don't accept the ability to adjustment the blocks, you've ashen your time acclimation the cyberbanking faults in the amplifier. Of course, I've added new amps with the spiral sizes. Some of the added improvements are bigger cartoon and added abundant advice about accepting backup screws.

* I've broadcast the area that shows you how to aftermath reliable aliment on abominably damaged ambit boards. If you assignment on old academy amplifiers, this advice can advice you accomplish aliment that will be actual reliable.

* To accomplish troubleshooting easier, added advice assuming the voltages on the pins of assorted ICs accept been added. This allows you to affirm that the voltages in the amps are as they should be. This is article that will consistently broadcast in the future.

* Even added advice has been added for chic D amplifiers. As always, I try to accumulate the advice as up to date as possible. This advice pertains to abounding of the amplifiers that use the audio disciplinarian boards with the defaced disciplinarian ICs.

* Back March, added than 100 pages accept been adapted in some way. Added than 300 cartoon files accept been added, replaced or bigger in some way.
The advice independent in this tutorial is from 20+ years of acquaintance alive on amplifiers such as those from Rockford, Sony, Autotek, Coustic, Planet Audio, Kenwood, Pioneer, JVC and aloof about any added cast awash in the US. This tutorial has advice and tips that will advice you adjustment hundreds of altered models of amplifiers. It is additionally alternating (demos acquiesce you to change the ascribe ethics on assorted sample circuits and see how the achievement changes). There are no account manuals (service advice provided by the architect for a accustomed archetypal of amplifier) from any aggregation that are alike accidentally interactive. Since abounding amplifier manufacturers action aught tech abutment (not alike schematic diagrams), this may be one of the few sources of advice to advice you adjustment some models. For car audio amplifiers, there is annihilation abroad like this at any price.
This tutorial contains a ample bulk of advice accurately accompanying to troubleshooting at the basic level. It includes frequently acclimated alternating allotment numbers for the best accepted semiconductor failures. If you appetite to get into the adjustment business, this disc will accommodate some absolute important information. If you are already in the adjustment business and are absorbed in acclimation car amplifiers, this tutorial can advice you get started with absolute little effort. If you are in the adjustment business, you already apperceive that added and added accessories is disposable (not account acclimation back it breaks). Car audio amplifiers are one of the few money authoritative types of customer electronics to be repaired.

A agenda about updates:

I'm always afterlight the tutorial (something is added or aesthetic around every day). Abounding times, it's aloof a few addendum or new images. Added updates accommodate absolutely new chapters. The discs are not austere until needed. Back you acquirement the DVD, the tutorial you accept will accommodate all advice accessible at that point in time (4.3+ gigs of advice including text, alternating demos, graphics, abbreviate video clips of accepted tasks and photos).

July, 2010 -- Updated!

* Again, there accept been lots of accessory updates and improvements. Additional advice has been added to abounding of the pages. Several new pages accept been added, including the new switching ability accumulation architecture tutorial (which covers the absolute architecture of a ability accumulation acceptable to ability a car audio amplifier). Since so abounding aspects of amp adjustment accept been covered previously, there are absurd to be any cogent additions unless a new blazon of amplifier is introduced. Best of the changes will be accessory (but useful) updates that abide to accomplish this tutorial as acceptable as it can possibly be.
The advice provided in this tutorial will advice you to abstain authoritative the best accepted mistakes and will abundantly access your affairs of success. As you apprehend through this page, you'll apprehend that the new amps are abundant added circuitous and abundant added difficult to adjustment than the old academy Rockford and Orion amps that started the car audio revolution. This tutorial makes accepting started abundant easier.

The advice begins at the best basal level. There are suggestions for the types of amps you should alpha with and those to abstain until you accept a bit added experience. For amplifiers with accepted problems, you are told what to attending for and how to actual the botheration so that the amp is added reliable than back it formed off of the accumulation line. Of course, the advice goes able-bodied above the basics. For those who are at a added avant-garde level, advice and suggestions are provided for some of the better amplifiers currently on the market. Although this activity began added than 5 years ago, the advice covers abounding of the amps that are currently on the market. The advice is always actuality adapted to assure that the advice continues to be both advantageous and relevant.

After the purchase, I will acquiescently accommodate abutment (via email) for amplifiers with which I'm familiar. If you charge advice with an amplifier archetypal that I've never had on the bench, I'll accommodate suggestions to advice you through the troubleshooting process. I'm about accessible added than 12 hours a day. I additionally advice those who haven't purchased the tutorial. If you accept a catechism about a repair, feel chargeless to email me. If you haven't apparent it yet, I accept a basal adjustment advice folio on my car audio site. THIS is a absolute articulation to the page.

To the fathers who are absorbed in car audio electronics and are disturbing to get their sons abroad from video games, this may be article that both of you can be absorbed in (especially if they're aloof accepting a car).

If you're absorbed in what buyers anticipate about the tutorial, apprehend their eBay acknowledgment HERE.

For those who begin this folio from a Google chase and are not accustomed with my web sites, you can appointment them by beat the links below.

ANALYSE FBT(PLYBACK) ERROR TV GUIDE

as a DC power who smber where the voltage value berfariasi mpy y-coil voltage 115v else went out tgangan 180v to RGB vertical Combination-24V to-33v-12vke tuner to VT.voltase voltage, the output to the ABL,, 5V AC to vilamen CRT - 23 kv to VR VOKUS, SCREEN, TR horizontal collectors.
The images appear normal-TPI-white line appears krg LBH 1m - measuring voltage B +180 TR bound to the collector through R, 10K-15K-12k-2WATT-wrn wrn sometimes blur mncl red-green-blue., sometimes PD Combination There RGB 3VR +2 Vr for drivers
resolve tv repairing ic chrome video tv ,Tgn-measure (B +)-measuring the voltage B + pda RGB out masing2 vr-measure, whether or not to replace Elko

Car Amplifier Schematic

The design of Car Amplifier Schematic is made by Mr. T.Giesberts. The article consist of 13 pages. If you read them till finish, you will be able to make yourself car amplifier.This Project is “Car amplifier” and its basic parts- SMPS, Amplifier, Preamplifier and Protection circuit witch are based on originally schematic from service manual of Kenwood Auto amplifier KAC-716.
I've work on this project about five mounts and it WORKS.
From originally schematic of KAC-716, I have produced PCB’s separately for SMPS, Amplifier, Preamplifier and Protection sow it can be develop extremely effortless.
All electronics capacitor from Amplifier, Preamplifier and Protection are 50 volts range. Input capacitors 2x 3300uf/16volts and output capacitors 2x2200uf/50volts and additionally 2x1500uf/50volts need to have 105 C temperature ranges.
All documents are in PDF format and JPEG. The PCB’s are in original sizes.
The SMPS isn't regulated so the output voltage will depend on turns ratio in ferrite core. I used 2 x 4 turn’s primary wire and for second it depends of why high will likely be the output voltage.
By choosing a appropriate resistance for resistor R222/1W connected with pin 6 of UPC1237 we should set up maximum current of 80mA. The valley of R222 depends of internal resistance of relay and supply. For much better calculation download the datasheet for UPC1237 form Internet-Read the note for utilizing UPC1237 and you are able to recognize what kind of other protections are given from this IC’s and employed in this style.
THE DESIGN OF CAR POWER AMPLIFIER

There are many designs of good amplifier published, solid state (SS) or tube designs. But few have written the design of car power amplifierActually the difficulty of designing the car power amplifier does not lies with the audio power amplifier, but it is more to providing the switching power supply.As we knows, the output power of any audio power amplifier is approached by formula :

P = Vpp2/(8*Rl)

where Vpp= peak to peak supply voltage, Rl is the speaker impedance load. For car voltage of 12Vdc, if we connect it to 4 Ohm speakers we will only have power of 144/32 = 4,5 Watt.Bridging the amplifier will double the power, but will never be more than 40 W.

If we want to make more powerful amplifier, lets say 170 watt at 4 ohm speaker load, we will need supply voltage of 74Vpp, or +/- 37 Vdc. The way to have this voltage from car supply of 12VDC is to make DC-DC converter.
In this article, I will discussed the car power amplifier in 3 steps :

1. The design of audio power amplifier

2. The design of DC-DC converter

3. Miscellenous tips for making car power amplifier.



1. THE DESIGN OF AUDIO POWER AMPLIFIER

In fig1 we can see that audio power amplifier can be splitted into 3 main functions, that is:

- First stage / input stage

- Second stage / voltage amplifier stage

- Third stage / output stage



First stage is the stage that receives the input audio signal and Negative Feedback (NFB) signal from the output of the amp. Feedback is the back signal used to stabilized the audio amplifier, like the gain factor. For first stage built by discrete transistors, both signals is fed to basis of the transistor, like in fig1. Both basis of the transistors is the Non- Inverting input and Inverting Input, like those in the op-amp.Second stage is the stage that responsibles for the Voltage Gain in the power amplifier.

Third stage is the Current Gain.

We can explain those stages in a simple way like this : Input signal, like from car radio or CD player have low voltage, about 1Vpp with few milliampere current. To produce power of 170 Watt at 4 ohm speaker load, than the signal has to have maginitude of 28Vpp and current of 6.5A (from the equation of P=I2*R = V2/R)

The first stage receives this signal in the non-inverting input and the inverting input receives NFB signal to make sure the voltage gain that the amplifier produces has a constant number, lets say 28 x. The output signal from the first stage has not reach 28Vpp, it tends to have the magnitude similiar to the input voltage. Second stage amplifies the voltage that the first stage generates. Second stage will amplifies the voltage to produce a signal that is enlarge 28x for the amplifier to have a 28Vpp signal from 1Vpp signal, but this 28Vpp signal still have small current , only a few mA and cannot drive the speaker load. The third stage amplifies the current from few mA to 6.5 A.

Offcourse the explenation for three stages above is not that simple in the real amplifier. We should take the nature's law for a transistor gain, that is G=RC/RE. This principles must be applied in each transistor in those 3 amplifier stages.

FIRST STAGE

First stage designs have main component, that is Constant Current Source (CCS) which can be seen in fig2. One of the basic of electronic law that works on every circuit is that the voltage drop of Basis and Emitor (Vbe) equals the drop voltage of one dioda = 0.67V. It can be seen in fig2 that the voltage drop of 2 dioda IN4148 = 2 x 0.67V = 1,34V. We can see in RE and Q1, then V=0,67 is substracted by Vbe of Q1 and the other 0,67V will be the drop of RE. So we will have a Constant Current Source of 0,67/RE. In fig2 the Ic is = 4,4mA. CCS first stage varies between 1-4mA.

In fig1 first stage, each component will be explained like this:

- R1 is the impedance of the audio amplifier, the range is 10 Kohm – 47Kohm

- C1 is the highpass filter from the equation : Fhp = 1/(2 x pi x R1 x C1)

- RED1 and RED2 is between 50-150 ohm

- RM1 and RM2 is picked up so the voltage drop will be 50mV – 150mV

- Q3 and Q4 is the Current Mirror that ensures the current in RM1 and RM2 will have the same magnitude.

- RF and CF will be discussed later.

Before we discuss Second Stage and Third stage, first we will discuss the amplifying effect of a transistor. In fig3a we will see a circuit of Common Emitor Mode (CEM). This circuit will amplifies the voltage. In fig3b we see a Common Colector Mode (CCM). This circuit is the current amplifier without voltage amplifier. So if we want to amplifies voltage we use CEM circuit and to amplifies current we use CCM circuit.

SECOND STAGE

The Second stage responsibles for all voltage gain (Maximum Voltage Swing) in an audio power amplifier. This is why the Second stage is generally known as VAS or Voltage Amplifier Stage. This stage consist of a voltage amplifier/CEM transistor(Q5 in fig1) in the bottom, Constant Current Source in the top, and a bias control circuit in the middle. Second stage CCS has current magnitude between 4-8mA

In the second stage there is an important capacitor for an audio power amplifier , that is Miller Capacitor (CC in fig1). CC defines the pole of the frequency response for an audio amplifier and the magnitude usually in small order (severalpF).

Bias control circuit consist of a transistor, resistor and a VR like in fig5. This circuit uses a transistor that is placed in the heatsink, because the transistor have good heat compensation factor (for bipolar transistors). For the amplifier that uses mosfet transistor for the final device, the bias circuit only needs potentio or dioda only because mosfets have different heat characteristic than bipolar transistors. The bias voltage magnitude depends on the type of the third stage used, which will be discussed later.

THIRD STAGE

Third stage / Output Stage is the current amplifier. Third stage and the bias circuit will defines whether an amplifier works in class A, class AB or class B.

It can be said that almost 90 % of car audio power amplifier works in class B. Operation in class B does not mean that the sound produced is not good or corrupted. With good design, we will have good audio results, both from class A or class B. The choice of class B in car audio power amplifier is conected to efficiency and the heat generated. Heat generated is a very important factor, because if not considered carefully, it will lead to amplifier breakdown.

Many configurations of the output stage can be seen in fig4. Each configuration has different optimum bias voltage. It depends on how many Vbe's that have to be passed. Example : In fig4(a) the signal has to pass 4 Vbe's, which is Vbe Q1, Q3, Q4 and Q2. So the optimum bias = 4 x 0.67V = 2.8V.

Both 3 stages that we have discussed above, if we connect the together will be a circuit that can be seen in fig5. Parts of this circuit can be explained like this:

- The value of Negative Feedback (NFB) resistor is determined by determining the gain factor with the equation : Gain = 1+(R10/R8) = 1+10k/500 = 21 x. The value of R10 = value of R1 to balance input. R20 and C7 are the pole and slope compensator.

- C2 limits the DC gain factor, value ranging from 47-220 uF, usually using a nonpolar capacitor.

- R21, R22 and C11 will stabilize CCS. Here we use CCS with 2 transistor system,but the equation used still the same, that is Ic = 0,67/RE .

- The output of differential pair tapped from collector of T10 and send to VAS which is built by T12 and T4. This configuration is called Darlington VAS and the value of R8 is standard.

- C3 is the Miller capacitor with value of 100pF.

- C5 is called Speed Up Capacitor. Several designs do not use this capacitor

- R18, C6,L1 and R19 are output power stabilisator. If there is any oscilation occur in the audio power amplifier, the first tobe effected is R18 besides the final transistors.

Car Power amplifier usually loaded by low impedance speakers, usually 4 ohms and can reach ½ ohm on bridge mode. Here we know the term “High Current Amplifier”. The difference is the number of final transistors, or in fig5 it is the number of pairs of T7 and T8. As a rule of thumb, the number of transistor needed first has tobe calculated by equations above, and then we determine the number of final transistor needed with assumption that 1 transistor can handle 50 Watt output. A pair of bipolar transistor can handle 100 Watt. The power is raised by parrarelling several output transistors, so the currrent flowing will be larger. For large number of final transistors, we change the predriver stage with darlington configuration.

Several designs uses symetrical design, like those used in AXL and Crescendo schematic. this design is developed from the basic principal above, but the signal handling for + and - part is handled by complementary circuits.

I have an example about another kind of power amplifier, that is a non-feedback amplifier. You can view the principles of the "millenium power amplifier" in the www.lcaudio.com . This amplifier has a certain gain factor in first and second stage, while the third stage is only current amplifier.

2.THE DESIGN OF DC-DC CONVERTER

For building car power amplifier, we need symmetrical power supply (+, 0, -) by building DC-DC converter. The converter system discussed below will be the SMPS(Switch Mode Power Supply) type PWM (Pulse Width Modulation). This system will deliver stable output voltage, regardless of the input voltage (usually the car electrical system will range in 9-15Vdc).

To explain the SMPS type PWM, it can be analogued by the next example. Look at fig6. There is a voltage pulse V1 on-off with 50% wide. These pulses if passed through suitable L and C filter will be transformated into straight voltage of V2 which is V2 = ½ V1. (noticed the marked area below pulsed V1 is the same total area of the marked straight V2 ). With the same logic, if the pulse width of V1 is narrowed, we will have a lower V2 and if we enlarge the width of V1 pulse, we will have higher V2. Some may ask, how can we get 30VDC from the car's 12VDC? The answer is simple. If we get the V1 voltage to 60VDC, then in the 50% duty cycle, we will get 30VDC straight. This is the part where the power switching transformer takes control, to make the 60VDC from 12VDC, and then chopped by the PWM. This is the princip of PWM. (Like the principal of class D digital power amplifier). In this design, we use regulating PWM IC's, like TL494, TL594, SG3524, SG3525. These IC's will compare the output of DC-DC converter with a reference voltage. If the output of DC-DC converter is smaller than reference voltage, then the IC will enlarge the pulse width so the voltage will raise equally to to reach determined voltage. So as if the output of DC-DC converter is higher than the reference voltage, the IC will narrow the pulse width so the output voltage will be lowered to the determined voltage.

Generally SMPS used in car audio amplifier is the push-pull system with switching frequency between 20-70Khz. In push pull sytem like in fig7, Q1 and Q2 gives alternating switched current pulses so the transformator will be objected to maximum flux swing change without saturating the core.

In this design we will use PWM IC with SG3524 from SGS Thompson. Specifications can be seen in SGS Thompson's website. Fig8 shows the configuration of 16 pins on this IC. To make is simpler, lets design a SMPS by explaining the function of each pin.

For the stereo power amplifier in fig5, we will need a SMPS 12Vdc input and summetrical output of +/- 37Vdc with 8A rating.

1. First we make the Remote Turn On circuit , which is connected from the car radio / CD player. The circuit can be seen in fig9a. This circuit will turn on the SMPS by giving 12Vdc to pin 12, pin 13 and pin 15.

2. The SMPS switching frequency is determined 50Khz. For this, the clock inside IC SG3524 is adjusted 2 x 50 Khz = 100Khz. This clock is built up by pin 7(Ct) and pin 6(Rt). The approach can be done with equation Fclk = 1 /(Rt x Ct). Here we use Ct = 1nF and Rt = 10Kohm like in fig9b

3. Pin 2(Non Inv In). In pin 2 we put stable reverence output for the SMPS. Here we use reference voltage of ½ from reference pin 16.

4. Pin 1(Inv In) is the output voltage detector . Pin 1 is connected to the optoisolator type 4N35 like in fig9b. Optoisolator is an important component in making this SMPS so we can have Floating Secondary Ground which will prevent noises (especially whine/storing) if the power amplifier is placed in car. The value of zener diode is 2 x 37V = 74V. If it is difficult to have zener voltage of 74 V, then we can series several zener values until we have total of 74 V.

5. Pin (4) and pin(5) are not used and connected to ground, pin(8) and pin(10) connected directly with ground.

6. Pin no 9(Comp) determines slope and pole of feedback from the whole SMPS system. In this design we use only 1 capacitor of 100nF.

7. Pin no 16(Vref) gives reverence voltage of 5,1 Vdc . This pin is placed with 10nF as a voltage stabilisator.

8. The output ripple (Vr) of the SMPS is determined by equation :

Vr = 8 x 10-6 x I / Co. With I = 8A and Vr = 0,029V we will have Co of 2.200uF in +37Vdc ->-37Vdc rail or 4400uF each in +37Vdc_0 and 4.400uF in 0_-37Vdc.

9. For output filter capacitor of 2.200uF, we will need approximately 4x 2.200uF or 8.800uF in the SMPS's input 12Vdc . The larger the value of this capacitor, more energy stored for the SMPS.

10. Output filter inductor Lo is determine by : Lo = 0,5 x Vout/ (I x F). With Vout = 2 x 37V = 74V, I = 8A dan F = 50Khz, we will have Lo = 0,092mH or Lo = 0,046mH on each supply rail + and – 37Vdc.

11. Pin 11 and pin 14 are output pins that will drive the primary winding switching mosfets. Inside IC SG3524 both pins have already opereated in mode push-pull. The circuit for driving power mosfets can be seen in fig9b. The number of power mosfet used is 3 in each transformator primary. So total there is 6 power mosfets type BUZ11.

12. Transformator(trafo) for SMPS is selfwould from ferrite toroidal core (like donuts) like in fig10. It is very important that for SMPS frequency above 20Khz, we cannot use iron core transformator like we use in homes. The ferite core transformator will have black color like in the speaker magnets, but do not have magnetizing force. The basic of equation for switching power supply with 12Vdc input is:

(1) Np = 1,37 x 105 / (F x Ae), where Np= primary number of turns, F = switching frequency, Ae = X x Y = window area of ferrite in cm2. Look at fig10. To make it easy to wound the transformator, we will have to choose the toroid core with minimal diameter of 2,5 cm and window area minimal of 0.75cm2.This is necessary for the easyness of self handwound. Remember that in push-pull system there is 2 primary windings.

(2) Ns/Np = Vo/8,8, where Ns = secondary number of turns, Vo = secondary output voltage

(3) Ap = 0,004 x Vo x Io, where Ap = window area of primary wire in mm2, Vo = output voltage, Io = output current.

(4) As = 0,13 x Io, where As = window area of secondary wire in mm2.

Example : If we use toroidal ferrite core with window area of Ae = 1 cm2. then from equation no. 1 we will have number of primary turn Np = 1,37 x 105 / (50Khz x 1 cm2) = 2,74 turns. In practice, number of minimal primary turns is 4 so the primary will cover the whole toroidal core. So we use 4 turns for Q1 and 4 turns for Q2.

From equation (2) we have that Ns/Np = 37/8.8 = 4,2. From here we can calculate that the number of secondary windings is = Np x Np/Ns = 4 x 4,2 = 16,8 or 17 windings. Like the primary, in secondary we use 2 x 17 turns, that is 17 turns for +37V –> 0 and 17 turns for 0-> -37V

Equation (3) is used tp determine the number of primary winding wires. We have Ap = 0,004 x 74 x 8 = 2,36mm2. If we use a 1mm diameter magnet wire, we will have window area of 0,785mm2 so we will need 3 wire magnets for each primary windings

Equation (4) is used to determine the number of wire needed for secondary windings. We have As = 0,13 x 8 = 1mm2 So if we use wire magnet with diameter of 0,8mm(window area = 0, 5mm2), then we will need 2 wires with diameter 0,8mm for each secondary windings.

13. The secondary output voltage is rectified by full bridge configuration like in fig11. Bridging diode must be the type of fast rectifier, usually looks like transistor TO220 with plate heatsink. For SMPS we cannot use ordinary 50/60Hz rectifier diode. For this design we use diode type BYW29-150, which have rating of 8A, 150V. We can also use other diodes like with prefixes FE…,MUR..., as long as it is a fast rectifier diode with minimal specification like above.
This is Power Acoustik PCX-30F
30.0 Farad hybrid digital power capacitor
24V DC foil-carbon internal capacitor
Digital blue voltage display
Tinted plexiglas with blue LED lights inside for viewing
Electronics polarity circuit
Over voltage protection circuit
Platinum plated ring terminals
Satin finish with chrome end caps and mounting brackets
Authorized Internet Dealer
1-year Manufacturer's warranty
Product Summary
Manufacturer: Power Acoustik
Model number: PCX-30F
UPC: 709483028005
Weight: 7.00 lbs
Internal SKU: pcx30f
Internal Product ID: 12024Power Acoustik PCX-30F
Power Acoustik PCX-30F
some told methat he can drive 4 hours without an alternator, is it possible
Id also go with no...but who knows Ive driven only 30 miles with no alternator...didnt seem to do the battery real harm but I remember when I was trying to trace the reason why my alternator wasnt charging the battery when I shorted the terminals I turned my car on and off about 8 times and left it running for more than 45 mins with only a .5 voltage drop amps unhooked...and idling all for about 4 mins..
Shunt compensators for harmonic compensation, load balancing and power factor correction have been proposed within the literature. The compensator consists of a VSI operated as a present source using hysteresis band current control. Numerous methods for generation of reference compensator currents have been used, e.g. the theory of instantaneous symmetrical components, instantaneous pq theory, etc. A considerable problem in these compensators that has two or much more capacitors is the capacitor voltage unbalance and drift because of the DC component of the current inside the neutral path. This degrades the tracking performance of the VSI and should be corrected. The paper describes an inverter chopper configuration and the various control methods to regulate the capacitor voltages to a reference value. The operation of the program has been verified via simulation of a 440 V, 3-phase program supplying unbalanced 3-phase R-L load and 3-phase half wave rectifiers. Detailed simulation outcomes utilizing MATLAB have been given
12 volt to 12, 15, 18, 21, or 24 DC DC Boost Converter (Adjustable DC DC regulator) Price $19.95 each.
PST-DC2171 1-10 11-50 51-100 100+
Price $19.95

$16.50
$13.40
call
Model Number PST-DC2171 DC DC Converter
Input Voltage Range 10 VDC to 14 VDC (see chart below)
Peak Output Power 50 Watts (see chart below)
Peak Output Current 2.5 Amps
Output Voltage Nominal Adjustable 12, 15, 18, 21, 24 Volts DC
Output Voltage Typical See chart below
No-Load Overhead 15 mA
Dimensions 122 x 76 x 60 mm
Fuse 10A fuse in cigarette lighter plug
Input cord 8 inch zip cord with cigarette lighter plug
Output cord 6 foot zip cord with 6 interchangeable adapters
Weight
Agency Approvals CE e4 approved

Test Data
Voltage Setting Typical
Voltage Used on Equipment Requiring* Minimum
Input V Maximum Input Voltage for regulation Maximum
Output A Efficiency
at 2.5 Amps,
12 Volts Input Line
Regulation at 1 Amp Load
Regulation
at 12 V input No-Load
Overhead
at 12 V input
12 Volts 12.5 V 4.5 volts 10.5 volts 2.5 Amps
15 Volts 15.5 V 4.5 volts 16 volts 2.5 Amps
18 Volts 18.5 V 4.5 volts 19.3 volts 2.5 Amps
21 Volts 21.7 4.5 volts 21.6 volts 2.5 Amps
24 Volts 23.1 - 24.3 V 4.5 volts 24.8 volts 2.5 Amps
the shema of 12volt to 16volt car adaptor scheme A 16 volt battery system requires a charging system that exceeds 18 volts 18+ volts will start frying most automotive electrical components
Most 16 volt systems are separated or isolated from the vehicles electrical systems
Turbo start use to make a 16 volt battery with 12 volt output post for the vehicles system
I’m nor aware of another battery with this 12 volt output.
A 16+ volt system is a expensive project; over 1,000.00
line follower robots are robots that can move to follow the line in the AUTO In fact, if readers are googling, lots of tutorials to make robots line follower on the internet, but almost all of them complicated and use a microcontroller that has not been understood by the boys' high school is much comment in my previous posting. .. Below are examples of line follower robot.

Rangkian Robot Line Follower Sederhana
Connect the battery or adapter with this audio mixer circuit. Enter Casset deck, or microphone output at input A1. Slowly rotate P1 toward maximum until the loudest sound was obtained but not broken. After that turn slowly toward a maximum until P4 obtained loudest sound but not broken. The same process performed on the input A2, A3.

Do not forget the time adjustment of S123 in the open position (ON position). After adjustment is complete, do not be amended again except P456 P123 that serves as a volume.

This audio mixer output can be connected to other recording media such as tape recorders, Cassette recorders, computers and much more. In addition, with the two LM 3900 you can have 6 channel audio mixer. Enough to build a simple studio and receive orders.
Fig circuit above can be applied to create an adapter or power suplly with the output voltage (V DC 12V output). Power supply above will only be protected by a capacitor as a safety when the power supply is connected with the burden on the circuit. Therefore recommended to use 35V capacitor with a minimum specification. To power the power supply more security we can menggunakkan TIP transistors, but I have yet to discuss it. For the diode bridge can be collated from four diodes then you solder into a bridge rectifier or you can buy a comb-shaped bridge rectifier (sideways) or the box. At least I would suggest using the diode bridge 1 Ampere, in a series adapter, the bigger the better way ampere diode currents in the circuit. Diodes like highways, and flow as the car passed. The larger and the width of existing highways, the faster the flow of runs and through the circuit.

For the 5 V power supply circuit, you can replace the above-volt regulator with the type 7805 and 7905. This application applies equally in this circuit. For variations, such as fuse or circuit switch on / off you can try yourself.
Skema Rangkaian Adaptor
There are two types of amplifier circuit that we often hear that the amplifier inverting (flipping) and Non-inverting (no reverse). For the circuit above is the type of inverting amplifier circuit. The above amplifier circuit using the IC which is often used and easy to find the op-amp IC LM741. To more easily understand the working principle of this amplifier circuit is deliberately examplize circuit is quite simple. Because by being able to understand the working principle of this circuit you will be able to easily understand the development of a series of Op-Amp rangakaian this as ADC (Analog to Digital Converter), DAC (Digital to Analog Converter), summing (sum) and others.

In the circuit on the input signals to be strengthened is one volt AC signal with a frequency of 1 Hz. The amount of amplified gain is divided by the input resistance of strengthening prisoners-R5 / R4 = -30/10 = -3. To determine the voltage gain of the output is x Vin = -3 x 1 volt = -3 volts. The minus sign shows the opposite phase with the input signal. This means that if the input signal is positive, the output signal will negatiif and if the input signal the output signal is negative then positive. For details try to notice the picture above input and output signals. The input signal is red and blue output signals. Vertical lines indicate the voltage and the horizontal line indicates the time. Signal input voltage 1 volt at the position (Vpuncak = 1V2 volts) and the output voltage is 3 volts (Vpuncak = 3V2 volts) are consistent with the strengthening of which is 3 times larger than the input signal.
Rangkaian Penguat Inverting Gambar
Light sensor circuit according to me is a series of sensors are the easiest and most often used as an experiment. Because with a little can make a component of this series, and its components easily available in the market. As with other series switching transistor circuit above also apply the basic principles of the saturated and cutoff transistors. To obtain a more accurate circuit and perfect could be using IC op-Amp.

In the above picture there are two conditions that the application of the light sensor when the bright lights and the lights on when dark. It should be understood from the above series is how we position the amount of current that will be received by the base of the transistor by utilizing the VR (variable resistor) as a determinant.
Rangkaian Sensor Cahaya Dengan LDR
Note the picture Below, when the switch SW1 is pressed and released back then obtained by the same signal as the signal in the image above. Initially when SW1 is connected with the supply voltage, the capacitor will charge quickly. Then when SW1 is released charge on the capacitor will be used by the inductor as the supply voltage. In accordance with the general nature of the inductor that the DC signal will be considered ordinary wire inductor such that current flowing through the inductor and fast charge on the capacitor decreases rapidly running out. Uniquely currents were flowing through the inductor and capacitor will fill the empty capacitor back through the other terminal (negative cycle). Kapasior rapid filling, then return to inductor will burden the load discharge occurs again. That so happens repeatedly (resonance occurs between L and C) until the electrical charge was used up by these two components in power losses. Equations between regular wire inductor is the inductor with wire work as usual at the time of her current flows in the same direction. Inductor, wire But unlike ordinary moment in an alternating current flows back to him. So it will not happen short circuit if the inductor to get the supply voltage alternating current (AC). But in ordinary wire short circuit will still occur even if the voltage is alternating current.
Rangkaian Resonansi LC Gambar
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